Tihar  (Festival of Illumination) of Hindus for prosperity and peace :-Shiva Adhikari

न्यूजलाईन्स् मिडिया संवाददाता
प्रकाशित मिति : २०७५ कार्तिक १५ गते, बिहीबार १७:५६

-Shiva Adhikari

Festivals become differently used to be celebrating with varieties of rituals in the human world. These all are not only the charms but also the inherited assets received by the people from their ancestors. Festivals used to make people somehow peace satisfying them even they might be suffered from many difficulties. In the same way Hindus are celebrating Tihar now with joys and happiness all over where they are residing. In the same way Nepal and most of the parts in India and in the other countries wherever Hindus are living used to be celebrating the second great festival with joys and happiness.

Traditional Hindu Culture

Hindus culture these days becoming popular in the world even they are differently celebrating in their own ways. Dasain the greatest festival recently over by receiving and giving Teeka and Jamara (plants grown for 9 days) mostly from the seniors blessed all for prosperity and peace in them.  We worshiped goddess Durga (the goddess of power) hoping she blessed us for the progress and prosperity in the coming days. Thus Hindus observe this festival worshipping Durga for nine days in her different incarnation Shailaputri, Brahmacharini, Chandraghanta, Kusmanda, Skandhamata, Katyayani, Kalaratri, Mahagauri, and Siddhidatri. While worshipping all we feel confident that Goddess Durga would be very happy and blessed us for all our prosperities.

This festival is very interesting in entire human world that has also been proved that former president of United States and his family appearing with red color Teekas and Jamara (plants of Nine days) on their forehead in the social media becoming remarkable part of the festival this year to the people in the world.

Notable cultural exchange program happen in Babadham last year when Ambassdor of Russia Excellency Dr. Sergey V. Velichkin Ambassador of Brazil Excellency Maria, Ambassador of Israel Excellency Mr. Hanan Godar, participated and receive teeka and holly matters of Durga Pooja.

Ambassdor of Russia Excellency Dr. Sergey V. Velichkin

 Ambassador of Brazil Excellency Maria,

Ambassador of Israel Excellency Mr. Hanan Godar,

In the Tihar Festival Ambassador of Sri Lanka Excellency Perrera also participated in the program of Babadham family becoming so remarkable regarding to exchange the culture. Therefore the program we perform must be known to all our friends who are coming from their country to support our development activities so far.

Ambassador of Sri Lanka Excellency Perrera

With completion of Dasain right after 21 days of we start the next great festival Tihar ( festival of illumination). People trying to find out the time why immediately after the Dasain Tihar used to be observing all over. Some legendary epics giving it as Rama while went to fight against Rawana (cruel fiend) won over and start return from Lanka to his kingdom Ayoddya had to walk for 21 days. While he reached to Ayoddya all the people or the citizen started chanting and celebrating joys by lighting the lamp all over to welcome him. Therefore, the same becoming the tradition and all of used to be observing where Hindus are living.


Obviously the Tihar the next great festival or some says it’s the second one in our society immediately after Dasain we celebrating. This festival according to the Vikram Samvat calendar, “begins with Kaag Tihar in Trayodashi of Kartik Krishna Paksha and ends with Bhai Tika in Dwitiya of Kartik Sukla Paksha every year” wikipedia. We celebrate the festival for five days and also it used to be called festival of lights in the Diyos that lit inside and outside of the house and also in the business places thinking that we will be passing the coming year with joys receiving maximum benefit from the activities whatever doing in different walk of our lives. Thus this festival “is popularly also known as Swanti (happiness) in Kathmandu Valley and the other major cities where Newari communities residing.

As it is mentioned this is definitely the second biggest festival after Dasain giving much of the importance as it shows the equality among the living beings as we all worshipping birds animals and human with honoring the same manner. Festival starting from worshipping crows as it’s the means of communication used to carry and bring the message to the Yama the god of death about the human being begging pardon of any mistake for their long life. Thus Tihar definitely maintains intimate relationship with birds, crows, animals symbolically the dog, cows, oxen and the human beings in the same manner.

In this festival people especially decorate making the patters on the floor of living room and the courtyards using colored rice flour, sand, red, blue, and more powder (abir) in different decorating colors flowers inside and outside the house that’s called Rangoli in Tarai means the sacred part of welcoming the goddess of wealth Laxmi.

The crows used to be worshipping by offering sweets and different foods that liked to it placing on the roof tops of each house. The cawing or crows and ravens symbolizes sadness and the grief in our culture. Therefore people used to offer crows and ravens food to avert grief and death in their homes in this festival. Like in the same ways Tihar as all are thinking represents divine attachment between human and animals. Tihar thus obliviously a joyous festival allowing even the gambling in the society that might reminding the worst impact of the gamble played between Pandav and Kaurav in the time of Mahabharata. If we go through the chronological steps of celebrating Tihar we find as in the following description.


  1. Kaag Tihar (Crow Tihar).

Tihar starts from Kaag Pooja (worshipping crows) in Nepalese society and we can say in all Hindus believing that crow as the messenger of Yamaraja the god of death wishing and hoping to avoid the entire deadly incident in their family.

  1. Kukur Tihar

The next to the crows dogs used to be worshipped thinking that that the venerable friends of human being in the festival. It’s called Kukur Tihar people offer garlands; Teekas in different seven colors feeding them delicious food cherish the relationship between human and dogs in all the time in their lives.

Dogs are the friends of human being occupy a special parts in Hindu Mythology since the time of Mahabharata while Pandavas started the journey of Mahaprastha and continued going but died first the Draupadi and in the same way Bhim also died on the way. Leaving all dying on way there were only Yudhisthira and a dog alive went successfully to the heaven lively epics mentions. In the Mahabharata, Bhairava a fierce manifestation of Lord Shiva had a dog as a Vahana (Vehicle) to travel as to go around. Further god mentioned with the Yama, the god of death, has been believed to own two guard of dogs in each of with four eyes to watch over the gates of Naraka (the hell). Since then Hindus belief, this day used to be observed as the Narak Chaturdashi all over.

  1. Gai Tihar and Laxmi Puja


The third day of Tihar all the HiHndus used to be engaged in worshipping the cows in the morning and during the day time wherever they find cows used to offer garlands of marigolds and other beautiful flowers decorating them with greater attraction.

Garlands of marigolds being prepared for the decoration of the house and the shops along with the industries believing that could be the good sign to make all profitable environment in the coming year.

In the morning of third day is the Gai Tihar people worship Gai that signifies prosperity good health and peace in the family.  Cow is the national animal of our country too used to be benefited from, even in the ancient times.

Its milk is the major product very useful and healthier to the child from the day of birth and to the  old ages people to grow and keep right strength to them. Then again urine of the cows used for the purpose of purification of the house and commercial complex where people spray it all over.

In this way the third day is the day of the people shows their gratefulness to the contribution of the cows by garlanding and feeding them with the grass and rounded bread what has been preparing in their house with holly spirit.

With all the activities matters good sign for the fortune of the people they hope receiving blessings Worshipping Laxmi believed the Goddess of wealth she would be giving all the properties and the happiness to the people who devoted to worship her.

On the day the houses of the people used to be decorating by garlanding of the flower of Sayapatri (Merigold) and makhamali (Gomphrena globosa) coloring giving greater attraction so that goddess Laxmi like to visit to bless them all. People used to be marking with the art of footsteps that reaching to this store where the used to put their valuable ornament and money thinking that Goddess Laxmin comes following the steps printed on the floor. Thus the day becomes special to decorate doors and the windows that all could see very attractive.  Thus, on this day people show their gratefulness to the cow by garlanding and feeding them with the best grass

Again on the same day evening Laxmi the goddess of wealth used to be worshipped believing that all are thankful to her for the benefits that were bestowed on the people by putting lights diyos (clay pot for lighting putting oil) and putting the burning candles in the doorsteps, windows, temples, water taps, and also pilling all the matter for cultivation of land and for business purposes.

Following with all these activities young girls and ladies used to sing Bhaili going door to door of the people blessing them dancing with joyous manner. While they go to dance to the people to people’s house begging donation and they collect all and share among how much they do or they used the fund to the social activities in their living village


  1. Govardhan pooja and Goru (Oxen) pooja

Fourth day of Tihar is the day called Goru Tihar worshipping ox and  Gobardhan mountain use to be done all over. Gobardhan is the mountain once in the time of Krishna lifted up in the little finger to save the people and all the cows and animals from the rain poured by the king of heaven Indra who anguished from the misbehaved of Krishna to flood all the things and the residence of the mountain. However he failed at last came and bow before Lord Krishna asking for blessings begging pardon for the mistake he committed by raining with the aim to sweep the mountain along with the living village and animas at all. Then Lord Krishna forgiven him and making safe all with his power.

Following the same of Lord Krishna who showed the vitality before the king of heaven who used to be feeling a mightier one to win Krishna since then the people used to be worshipping the Gobardhan Pravat (Gobardhan Mountain) putting cow dung symbolizing the same mountain lord Krishna lifted. They put cow dung making with a hole to put milk and curd and all the matters to worship as that is a Gobardhan Pravat. This pooja used to be done by Vaishnavism mainly and all the other Hindus also worshipping in their residence.

On the same fourth day of Tihar people used to worship oxen decorating them with garlands and putting teeka on the forehead. After worshipping they offer sel roti ( round flour bread) and all the food whatever preparing for Tihar festivals. Mainly thus the day is known as the Goru Pooja (worshiping of ox) all over.

Then the Mha Pooja (worshipping self) used to be done in the Newari community in the same day evening living all the family members in every house. This day also is the New Year (Nepal Sambat) that started by Gunakamadev mostly followed by the Newari community and the day has been recognized also by the government of Nepal.

From the third day of Tihar there start dancing and singing Bhailo and following the same the fourth day mostly the people used to sing Deusi going to the door to door of the house of the people. In the process of dancing and singing a leader used to be mentioning about the festival and sometimes saying the legendary epics and the same used to be following by the participants of the program.

On the third day of Tihar dancing starts from the singing Bhaili mostly the  girl or the lady starts the story and mentioning the importance of the festivals and that used to be followed by the participants chanting Bhaili. Bhaili is especially for the ladies that traditionally used to be singing and dancing going door to door of the people. Following the same in the fourth day evening mostly the boys and the men used to sing Deusy.

Both the group go door to door and dance very interestingly and in return house owner give them money, sel roti  (rounded bread of the rice flour putting delicious groceries and sugar to make it sweet) other food made in the house and rice putting it in the sheave by lighting lamp bring among the dancers dancing in the courtiers of the house.

However people received money they share among them how much they collected. Also in the same way social worker, politician, and the people from the charities used the fund for public welfare so far they can.

  1. Bhai Tika (worshipping and giving teeka to    the brothers)

The last and the fifth day of the Tihar are renowned the day of Bhai Teeka (giving teeka to the brothers). This day observed by the sisters coming from their house to the house of brother with their delicious food sel roti and some clothes and the gifts however they can offer to their brothers.

We are receiving Teeka  in our sisters house:

Before to give Teeka they worship brothers making a round of the oil thinking that any of the demons couldn’t cross the circle to hamper their brothers and they bless brothers as in the same way safe from all the dangers. By the same way they worship walnut putting burning thread and break it symbolizing the daemon to hamper brothers.


Ambassador of Brazil Excellency Maria in Tihar Festival in Babadham



Applying the Tika

All the way they worshipping brothers applying tilak, or the teeka to their forehead with different seven colors making just as it may look the rainbows wishing and blessing in the same way their appearance become bright days of the coming year. This pooja has been believed that Yamraja the God of Death visited his sister Goddess Yamuna on the day of Bhai Pooja during which she gave teeka on his forehead, garlanded him and fed him delicious special food requesting him not to hamper brothers in the society. In the same manner Yamaraja also offered special gift to Yamuna and they shared gifts talking interesting ways what happening in their lives that now all believe in the society. Since then Yamaraja announced who used to be receiving Teeka and Tilak from their sisters will never die on that day.

With the same legendary parts sisters are giving Teeka to the brother offering them the special dishes made in their house and gifts however they could. In the same way brothers also offer money and special gift to the sisters in returns.


Festivals must come to be with prosperity and peace.

People in the different ways used to celebrate their festival as per their ritual tradition in the world. We celebrate Dasian Tihar and many others as per our traditional values. Anyway the culture might be different but the human being in the world are the same to be living must be happy with their full satisfaction in their lives.

Therefore we have to think of the way how to keep happy the people sharing the outcome of the nature equally so that no one in the society will be looking discriminated and compel to beg and pass lifelong living on the streets. For that we have to follow the disciplinary activities that may use to be practiced from the lesson of Buddha Asta Marga (Eightfold Path) to make them going for the utilization of Asta Ja (Eight Ja) resources that leads making people satisfied with their own efforts. Then only the sustainable development used to be assured with social, environmental and economic management all over. With the activities of the sustainable development we will successfully designing a Model Village every part in the world. Thus the model village would be making the way for sustainable peace in the world. So, all the religion and cultural, festival and ritual values must go for maintaining sustainable peace in the world.

For the same purpose I am designing a model that might be used for peace as in the following figure:


Mentioning about the culture I have given the way how we can go further that must be considered by the people in every sphere of the society. Now I remember the “coincidentally, Laxmi Puja also marks the birthday of Laxmi Prasad Devkota, who is widely revered and honored as the greatest poet of Nepali language” I wish him to offer my deep respect from my side. I hope all will be happy and working for their prosperity on the auspicious festival of Tihar. I wish Happy Tihar 2018 to all.




फेसबुक प्रतिक्रिया
सम्बन्धित शीर्षकहरु